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Making a Necessity of Virtue : Aristotle and Kant on Virtue by Nancy Sherman.

Making a Necessity of Virtue : Aristotle and Kant on Virtue by Nancy Sherman.


Ethics of the Real : Kant and Lacan

Ethics of the Real : Kant and Lacan 
by Alenka Zupancic, Borut Zupancic

Immanuel Kant  1724-1804

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bulletUsed Books:  Immanuel Kant 
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 Kant's Final Synthesis : An Essay on the Opus Postumum

Kant's Earliest Solution to the Mind / Body Problem

 by Andrew Carpenter

Andrew Carpenter Original Contribution Andrew Carpenter wrote his dissertation, "Kant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem", under the direction of Professors Hannah Ginsborg and Daniel Warren at the University of California at Berkeley.  You will find excerpts from the dissertation, among other more recent writings at Andrew's Website.

Andrew's work on Kant is the first detailed study of Kant's philosophy of mind in Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces (1747). He focuses on four topics: Kant's criticism of the Wolffian notion of vis motrix, his solution to the "heterogeneity problem," his attempts to locate the soul in space, and his understanding of role of the body in cognition. 

Carpenter's work provides a clearer account of the course of Kant's pre-critical thought, and especially of Kant's early concern with embodiment. He devotes a chapter to the "embodied cognition" articulated in the much-overlooked Appendix to Kant's Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens (1755). He  also uses the recently-published Lectures on Metaphysics to explore Kant's responses to three problems that plagued his early philosophy of mind: a contradiction in his rational psychology; the lack of a criterion for distinguishing material and immaterial simples; and possessing no consistent explanation of how souls act in space. He concludes that these problems were crucial for the development of the critical philosophy. 

Andrew has presented this research to several national and international conferences, and will soon publish two reviews that relate his work to recent studies by Susan Shell, Alison Laywine, Robin Schott, and Eric Watkins. This work was supported by fellowships from the University of California and Amherst College. 

Below is a representative list of Andrew Carpenter's work.  For an extensive Vitae, as well as a glimpse on Andrew's current projects, visit Andrew's website.

bullet"Kant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem"
bullet"Kant's (Problematic) Account of Empirical Concepts"
bullet"Kant on the Theological Foundations of Newtonian Science"
bullet"Knowing the Body as an External Object? The Strange case of Kant and  Bodily Self-awareness" 
bullet"Systematicity, Purposiveness, and the Facticity of Kant's Fact of Reason" 
bullet"Vis Activa is not Vis Motrix: Kant's Critique of Wolffian Mechanics" 
bulletKant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem: Introduction 
bulletKant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem: Chapter 1: The Cause of  Motion Is Vis Activa Not Vis Motrix 
bulletKant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem: Chapter 2: Embodied  Cognition and Elements of Kant's Metaphysics of the 1750s  
bulletKant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem: Chapter 3: Dreams of the  Critical Philosophy 
bulletKant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem: Chapter 4: A New Vision of the Mind/Body Problem: The Inner Sense Thesis 
bullet"Kant's Philosophical Cosmology" 
bullet"Kant Glossary" 
bullet"Guided Tour of Kant's Philosophy of Mind" 
bullet"Kant's Philosophy of Mind" 
bulletReview of  Feminist Interpretations of Immanuel Kant, ed. Robin May Schott 
bulletReview of Susan Meld Shell's The Embodiment of Reason

LandonThe Eonic Effect: A Glimpse of Evolution

by John Landon

John Landon Original Contribution


A New Approach to history and evolution based, based not on one evolution, but the transition between them. Based on Kant's Challenge, Is there a pattern of Universal History. The theory revolves around Kant's Third Antinomy.

This work documents the discovery of the eonic effect in the context of the explosive growth in our archaeological and historical knowledge. This uses nothing but the simplest elements of turning point analysis, periodization, and historical correlation, to construct a frequency hypothesis with respect to the emergence of civilization. We can bypass the metaphysical quagmires that haunt metaphysical history with a tactic no more complex than that of the economist studying economic cycles...

Site Includes:

bulletThe Eonic Effect

The Eonic Effect:  A Glimpse of Evolution is to be published by  Xlibris Books in November, 1999.

Subject:  evolution, Kant, universal history, civilization


Kant, Immanuel: Biography

Biography by Peter Landry at


Kant was born in Königsberg; he spent his life there; he died there. At the age of forty-six, Kant received an appointment as a professor of logic and metaphysics at his alma mater the University of Königsberg. His famous claim: "Though our knowledge begins with experience, it does not follow that it arises out of experience." A philosophical classic is his work Critique of Pure Reason  wherein he asserts that our perceptual apparatus is capable of ordering sense-impressions into intelligible unities, which, while in themselves cannot be proven, we are led to conclude through "pure reason," that intelligible unities, such as God, freedom, and immortality, do exist; and that the formation of such intelligible unities are practical necessities for one's life. An admirer of Rousseau, Kant's work gave rise to the Idealist school (Fichte, Hegel and Schopenhauer).


Immanuel Kant

bulletKant on the Web
bulletLinks Relating to Kant
bulletLiterature on Kantian Ethics
bulletPhilosophy of Immanuel Kant
bulletSecondary E-Texts on Kant
bulletThe Categorical Imperative in the Late 20th Century


Immanuel Kant

Essay by Kelly Ross.


Kant's most original contribution to philosophy is his "Copernican Revolution," that, as he puts it, it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible. This introduced the human mind as an active originator of experience rather than a passive recipient of perception. This all now seems obvious: the mind could be a tabula rasa no more than a bathtub full of silicon chips could be a digital computer. Perceptual input must be processed or it would just be noise--"less even than a dream" or "nothing to us," as Kant alternatively puts it.

Site Includes:

bulletThree Points in Kant's Theory of Space and Time
bulletKant's Frist Antinomy, of Space and Time
bulletKantian Quantum Mechanics


Proceedings of the Friesian School

Taking up again the tradition of the Friesian School, this is a non-peer-reviewed electronic journal and archive of philosophy, inaugurated on line July 6, 1996, four years before the end of the Century, just as the brilliant, courageous, prolific, and little appreciated German philosopher Leonard Nelson (1882-1927) started his Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule, Neue Folge, attempting a "Reformation of Philosophy," four years after the beginning of the Century.

The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series seeks to promote the further development of the Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) in the direction indicated by Sir Karl Popper's remark in The Open Society and Its Enemies that "serious men," such as Arthur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) and Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), did not at first take seriously the "senseless and maddening webs of words" (as Schopenhauer put it) of G.W.F. Hegel.  


Links to Kant

Site Includes:

Online Texts:

bulletCritique of Practical Reason (Abbott translation)
bulletIntroduction to the Metaphysics of Morals (Hastie translation)
bulletThe Science of Right (Hastie translation)
bulletThe Metaphysical Elements of Ethics (Abbott translation)
bulletCritique of Pure Reason (translated by Kemp Smith; hypertext version by Stephen Palmquist, since souped up by others, it seems, with search features and much more)
bulletThe Critique of Pure Reason (ASCII text; Meiklejohn translation)
bulletThe Critique of Pure Reason (ASCII text; Meiklejohn translation) [another location]
bulletThe Critique of Judgment (Meredith translation)
bulletUniversal Natural History and Theory of Heaven (in German & English)
bulletPerpetual Peace
bulletZum ewigen Frieden (in German)
bulletBeantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklaerung?, in German, nicely formatted (sample from a CD-ROM of Kant's works in German)
bulletOn Comprehension and Transcendental Consciousness: Beantwortung der Frage: Ist es eine Erfahrung, daß wir denken? [brief selection]
bulletOn the Nature of Physical Bodies: „Vorrede“ to „Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft“
bulletüber Pädagogik
bulletLinks to Kant texts at Hanover College (the links are there, not the texts)

Writings on Kant:

bulletKent Baldner, Transcendental Idealism and the Fact/Value Dichotomy
bulletStephen Palmquist, "Does Kant Reduce Religion to Morality?"
bulletStephen Palmquist, Review of Gregor's translation of Metaphysics of Morals
bulletWilliam Turner, Catholic Encyclopedia: The Philosophy of Immanuel Kant
bulletAneurin Bosley (M.A. from University of Ottawa) "Immanuel Kant's Theory of Experience"
bulletBrian Epstein [not the Beatles' manager; a Stanford University philosophy Ph.D. student], "Kant's Weak Determinism"
bulletStephen Palmquist, "Kant's Theocentric Metaphysics"
bulletStephen Palmquist, "Kant's Theistic Solution to the Problem of Transcendental Theology"
bulletJ. Frank Baker (University of Louisville student?), The Categorical Imperative in the Late 20th Century
bulletPhilip McPherson Rudisill's Reconcilliation of Immanuel Kant and John Wesley (several papers) (some in progress)
bulletGordon L. Ziniewicz (Loyola College in Maryland), Kant: How Do We Know that We Know What We Know
bullet"The Ontology and Cosmology of Non-Euclidean Geometry" by Leonard Nelson (1882-1927)


bulletGlossary of technical terms in Kant from Stephen Palmquist's Kant's System of Perspectives
bulletShort Selections on Kant by Allsion and Scruton (plus other information)
bulletBjorn's Kant page including links to texts, images, other philosophers, and a brief biography of Kant
bulletYahoo list of Kant links
bulletSafe Haven web page on Kant, including quotations and an overview of several paragraphs on the central ideas of Kant's philosophy
bulletRichard Lee's seminar in Kantian Ethical Theory
bulletSteve Palmquist's list of links to Web Resources on Kant, including indexes, secondary sources, e-mail addresses of Kant scholars, programs of the Kant congress, and even a program that generates text of "pseudo-Kantian gibberish!"
bulletSteve Palmquist's list of links to Kant's writings available on the web
bulletSteve Palmquist's list of links to Secondary sources (e-texts) on Kant available on the web
bulletDr. G. J. Mattey's page of Kant links
bulletDr. G. J. Mattey's brief lexicon of terms used by Kant
bulletDr. G. J. Mattey's lecture notes for a course on Kant at U.C. Davis
bulletLawrence M. Hinman's "Ethics Update" on Kant's moral theory
bulletSummary of Kant's Philosophy by G.J. Mattey
bulletJohn Clarke's outline of Kant's first Critique
bulletBrief biography by Garth Kemerling
bulletEuropean General Assembly of Students in Philosophy page on Kant
bulletMalaspina page of Kant links including a couple of lectures on Kant and links to Kant books
bulletEssay Topics on Kant's Perpetual Peace and Other Essays
bulletListserv Discussion on Kant: samples and how to join
bulletBrief biography of Kant, stolen by someone (Ron Turner) from Microsoft Encarta
bulletSyllabus (unsigned) for a course on Kant at Lancaster University, with brief definitions of technical terms by Michael Hammond
bulletSyllabus for Leslie Stevenson's course on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
bulletA Brief discussion of Kant's Influence by Institute for Learning Technologies
bulletKant's Metaphysics Hannah Hardgrave's notes for Philosophy 111 at Wake Forest
bulletSummary of Critique and Totality by Pierre Kerszberg
bulletWinfried Krauss's Kant pages These are in German. Includes important dates in Kant's life and a list of his writings (with dates).
bulletPublic Philosopher Kant page
bulletKantian Review (a journal)
bulletA Complete Condordance to Kemp Smith's Translation of Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason


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