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Philosophy of Science

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The Conscious Universe : Parts and Wholes in Physical Reality
Complexity : Life at the Edge of Chaos Complexity : Life at the Edge of Chaos by Roger Lewin

"Put together one of the world's best science writers with one of the universe's most fascinating subjects and you are bound to produce a wonderful book. . . . The subject of complexity is vital and controversial. This book is important and beautifully done."--Stephen Jay Gould

"[Complexity] is that curious mix of complication and organization that we find throughout the natural and human worlds: the workings of a cell, the structure of the brain, the behavior of the stock market, the shifts of political power. . . . [I]t is time science . . . think about meaning as well as counting information. . . . This is the core of the complexity manifesto. Read it, think about it . . . but don't ignore it."--Ian Stewart, Nature

Complexity theory holds that at the root of all complex systems lie a few simple rules that will yield a grand unification of the life sciences. Lewin personalizes a dramatic story of scientific discovery that includes explorations by such diverse scientists as Stephen Jay Gould, Edward O. Wilson, and James Lovelock.

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Ethics in Science

Brian Tissue maintains this hypermedia page in the Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Site Includes:

bulletScience Ethics Bibliography
bulletOnline Science Ethics
bulletEthics in the Physical Sciences- Course Outline and Reference Books


Hopos:   The History of Philosophy of Science Working Group

Hopos is an informal, international working group of scholars who share an interest in promoting serious, scholarly research on the history of the philosophy of science and related topics in the history of the natural and social sciences, logic, philosophy, and mathematics. We interpret this statement of shared interest broadly, meaning to include all historical periods and diverse methodologies. We aim to promote historical work in a variety of ways, including the sponsorship of meetings and conference sessions, the publication of special issues of journals, the dissemination of information about libraries, archives and collections, and, as more ambitious projects become feasible, the preparation of bibliographies and finding guides. 

Site Includes:

bulletElectronic Mailing List
bulletInternet Links
bulletMugshots of philosophers


Jules Henri Poincaré 

From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Site Includes:

bulletHis Life
bulletChaos and the solar system
bulletArithmetic, intuition and logic
bulletConventionalism and the philosophy of geometry
bulletScience and hypothesis


Malcolm R. Forster 

Maintained by Malcolm R. Forster.  Articles online written or co-authored by Malcolm R. Forster, Professor of Philosophy  University of Wisconsin-Madison. Subjects include philosophy of science, simplicity and parsimony, foundations of statistics, causal modeling, and the foundations of physics.

Forster also maintains Philosophy of Science, Wisconsin Style,  with information about graduate studies in the philosophy of science at  the University of Wisconsin-Madison, plus general links to science and philosophy of science resources. 


Modal Operator Theory:  A Program in Philosophy 

Vincent F. Hendricks

Meant to entice students and fellow researchers, this well organized and aesthetically austere website is an introduction to modal operator theory.  Based upon the work of Vincent Hendricks and Stig Andur Pedersen, this site introduces the applications of modal logic and formal learning theory to epistemology, methodology and philosophy of science.

Books by Hendricks and Pedersen:

Proof Theory : History and Philosophical Significance (Synthese Library, V. 292) by Vincent F. Hendricks (Editor), Stig Andur Pedersen (Editor), kla Jrgensen

Coming Soon from Vincent F. Hendricks:

The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge - A View from the Limit, (Trends in Logic, Studia Logica Library), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001

Operators in Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh Press


Neurophilosophy Bibliography 

Compiled by Pete Mandik.


Paradoxes of Physics and their Solutions

By Wladimir Guglinski

This book by Guglinski is of interest to philosophers and all those interested in the history of the development of science.  The author analyzes the evolution of the scientific method from Newton to the present age, claiming that Werner Heisenberg introduced a new scientific method which represents a degeneration of the science's  research in the field of Fundamental Physics.


Paul Feyerabend (1924-1994) 

From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.


Paul Feyerabend (b.1924, d.1994), having studied science at the University of Vienna, moved into philosophy for his doctoral thesis, made a name for himself both as an expositor and (later) as a critic of Karl Popper's `critical rationalism', and went on to become one of this century's most famous philosophers of science. An imaginative maverick, he became a critic of philosophy of science itself, particularly of `rationalist' attempts to lay down or discover rules of scientific method.

bulletA Brief Chronology of Feyerabend's Life and Work
bulletFeyerabend's Life and Work- A Critical Appraisal
bulletA Short Bibliography of Feyerabend's Major Writings
bulletA Bibliography of Writings on Feyerabend
bulletOther Internet Resources
bulletThe Feyerabend Discussion List Archive
bulletPictures of Paul Feyerabend
bulletThe University of Chicago Press, for information on Feyerabend's Autobiography
bulletRelated Entries


The Philosophy of Steve McKinlay

A variety of papers covering topics from Scientific Explanation, Popper and Hacking, Mental States, Fodorian Language of Thought and Quine/Putnam on Meaning as well as a proposed etiology of Autism and Asperger Syndrome based on the modularity of mind thesis.


Proceedings of the Friesian School:  Philosophy of Science

The essays at this site range from the fully annotated and technical to more informal and discursive discussions, often written for undergraduate classes. Many items therefore should be intelligible to those not familiar with all the arcana of academic philosophy. Such a range of submissions is acceptable and desired, since the trend, by which academic philosophy has obscured and esotericized itself, and mostly dropped out of popular and literate culture, should be resisted.

Site Includes:


bulletThe "Sin" of Galileo [12.1K]
bulletCreationism & Darwinism, Politics & Economics [26.3K]
bulletThe Ontology and Cosmology of Non-Euclidean Geometry [37.5K]
bullet§1. Introduction
bullet§2. Curved Space and Non-Euclidean Geometry
bullet§3. Geometry in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
bullet§4. Conclusion
bulletThe Clarke-Leibniz Debate (1715-1716)
bulletThree Points in Kant's Theory of Space and Time
bulletKant's Frist Antinomy, of Space and Time
bulletRelativity and the Separation Formula [28.4K] 
bulletHistoric Equations in Physics and Astronomy 
bulletEinstein's Equivalence Principle
bulletThe Quantacized Atom [49.0K] 
bulletUnits of Measurement 
bulletThe Electromagnetic Spectrum  
bulletPhysical Constants 
bulletDuodecimal Counting 
bulletNote on the Metaphysic of Space [10.6K]
bulletTime Travel Paradoxes [7.0K]
bulletThe Century and the Millennium; Cardinalists vs. Ordinalists [8.0K]
bulletKantian Quantum Mechanics
bulletPhilosophical Problems with Calculus [14.4K]
bulletGroundhog Day and Chinese Astronomy [14.2K]

Book Reviews

bulletThe Emperor's New Mind, Roger Penrose, Oxford University Press, 1990 [14.6K]
bulletCriticism of Karl Popper in Anthony O'Hear's An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Oxford University Press, 1989 [7.9K]
bulletThe Great Devonian Controversy: The Shaping of Scientific Knowledge among Gentlemanly Specialists, Martin J. S. Rudwick, University of Chicago Press, 1985 [13.4K]


bulletPythagorean Triplets [3.9K] 
bulletGenetic Distance and Language Affinities Between Autochthonous Human Populations [5.2K] 
bulletThe Beaufort Wind Force Scale, The Saffir/Simpson Hurricane Scale, & the Fujita Scale of Tornado Intensity [24.1K]  
bulletNote on Dew Point 
bulletPeriodic Table of the Elements [65.6K]  
bulletThe Sub-Atomic Zoo [18.1K] 
bulletEuclid's Axioms and Postulates [22.7K]
bulletHilbert's Axioms of Geometry
bulletPlatonic and Archimedean Polyhedra [7.8K]  
bulletComparison of Cosmological Distances with Historical, Paleontological, and Geological Time, as of 1993 [27.6K] [with frames]
bulletComparison of Cosmological Distances with Historical, Paleontological, and Geological Time, as of 1993 [27.6K] [without frames]
bulletIf a Millimeter Were a Year/Light-Year [43.4K] [with frames]
bulletIf a Millimeter Were a Year/Light-Year [43.4K] [without frames]
bulletThe 212 Galaxies of the Coma-Sculptor Cloud [244.2K]
bulletThe Solar Terms and the Chinese 60 Year Calendar Cycle [11.2K]
bullet"Knowing" Words in Indo-European Languages [0.9K]
bulletLanguages with more than 30,000,000 Speakers as of 1993 [36.1K]
bulletHow to Pronounce "Hawaii" [5.1K]


Quantum Unitary Field Dynamics (QUFD)

By Father Jerome, OA/OWB, D.Th.(In Esse - the Theology of Reality), D.Sc.(Quantum Physics)

A text-only (NO graphics) science education website for 5 yr. old "scientists", it explains in detail what the human MIND is and how consciousness works, using established Quantum Mechanical, Psychological, Spiritual and other scientific principles, in a Philosophical discourse which promulgates both a new Unified Field Theory of Quantum Mechanics and a new Psychology-of-Consciousness theory. NOTE: Although Quantum Physics is used to explain the workings of consciousness, the Christian SPIRITUAL Theology of Reality is also used to explain  the realities of consciousness. In this case, Spirituality is to be distinguished from "Religion", in that this website has NO religious affiliation NOR does it promote ANY religious viewpoint. 


Radiology: the eyes that look into our inner body

Original Contribution Award Recipient

Created and Maintained by Team 27314, represented by Niccolò Dalla Palma.

This interesting and innovative site (a semifinalist for the international ThinkQuest competition), helps those who want to know more about this difficult but interesting subject: radiology. You can test your knowledge with the tests and quizzes.

Available in Italian, French, English or German.

Site Includes:

bulletTests and Quizzes

Reactive science communication from award-winning British science writer David Bradley, features news and views and features including links to external work including his weekly Catalyst column on ChemWeb.


Science, Technology and Society 

Prepared by: Catherine McCabe, Melanie O'Neil and Karen Rowswell School of Library and Information Studies University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Site Includes:

bulletHistory of Science
bulletPhilosophy of Science
bulletComputers in Society
bulletUniversity Courses and Programs in STS
bulletAssociations and Organizations
bulletFood for STS Thought
bulletNewsgroups and Listservs
bulletEvents, Conferences, Exhibits


Science, Technology, and Society

This is a page of extensive links to STS Related Websites from NC State University.

Site includes:


bulletAlliance for Public Technology
bulletCenter for Alternative Technology
bulletCenter for Neighborhood Technology Home Page
bulletInternational Pugwash Home Page
bulletLoka Institute Home Page
bulletWashington Biotechnology Action Council (WashBAC)

Computers and Information Technologies:

bulletACTS Home Page
bulletBenton Foundation: The Communication Policy Project
bulletCenter for Information Technology, Stanford University
bulletEqual Access to Software and Information Home Page
bulletInformation Infrastructure Task Force
bulletInformation Worker 2005 Home Page
bulletInfrastructure Technology Institute

Environment and Ecology:

bulletCenter for Environmental Policy & Administration, Maxwell School, Syracuse University
bulletGlobal Network for Environmental Technology
bulletInstitute for Environmental Studies, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill

Ethics in Science:

bulletEthical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science
bulletEthics in Science
bulletIEEE Society on Social Implications of Technology
bulletMedical Ethics
bulletMonitors: A Journal of Human Rights and Technology
bulletWeb Clearinghouse for Engineering & Computing Ethics - NC State University


bulletBiotechnology Information Center
bulletNational Center for Genome sources

Women and Minorities in Science:

bulletAda Project: A Collection of Resources for Women in Computing
bulletInternational Gender, Science and Technology Policy
bulletWomen and Minorities in Science & Engineering
bulletWomen and STS


STARLAB. Planetarios Móviles. Representación Latinoamericana

Alejandro Vega, Representante de STARLAB para Latino America

A portable planetarium is a powerful tool for astronomy education. It consists of a inflatable, fabric dome, a projector, and projection cylinders and curriculum materials. Inside the dome, the planetarium projector can project a star field of 3,000 stars, the Sun, the moon, moon phases, planets, deep sky objects, as well as the constellations as seen by many cultures including Greek, Chinese, African, Egyptian, and more.

The interactive presentations are so realistic, they simulate the true sky in ideal conditions from any point on Earth. In addition, the planetarium is so versatile, it can also be used to teach subjects across the disciplines including biology (with the Biological Cell cylinder), geology (with the Ocean Currents, Weather, Earth or Plate Tectonics Cylinders) as well as mythology, literature and art.

Website in Spanish.


The Tradition of Jesuit Science

From the Mathematics Department at Fairfield University


...Today there is a great deal of interest among scholars in the contributions of Jesuits to science and here we celebrate some of these Jesuit mathematicians and scientists who embody the Jesuit tradition of scholarship, dedication and service...

Site Includes this history of Jesuit Scientists:

bulletJosé de Acosta, S.J. - 1600: Pioneer of the Geophysical Sciences
bulletFrançois De Aguilon, S.J. - 1617: and his Six books on Optics
bulletRoger Joseph Boscovich, S.J. - 1787: and his atomic theory
Christopher Clavius, S.J. - 1612: and his Gregorian Calendar
bulletHonoré Fabri, S.J. - 1688: and his post-calculus geometry
Francesco M. Grimaldi, S.J. - 1663: and his diffraction of light
bulletPaul Guldin, S.J. - 1643: applications of Guldin's Rule
bulletMaximilian Hell, S.J. - 1792: and his Mesmerizing encounters
bulletAthanasius Kircher, S.J. - 1680: The Master of a Hundred Arts
bulletFrancesco Lana-Terzi, S.J. - 1687: The Father of Aeronautics
bulletFrancis Line, S.J. - 1654: the hunted and elusive clock maker
bulletJuan Molina, S.J. - 1829: The First Scientist of Chile
bulletJerôme Nadal, S.J. -1580: perspective art and composition of place
bulletIgnace Pardies, S.J. - 1673: and his influence on Newton
bulletAndrea Pozzo, S.J. - 1709: and his perspective geometry
bulletVincent Riccati, S.J. - 1775: and his hyperbolic functions
bulletMatteo Ricci, S.J. - 1610: who brought scientific innovations to China
bulletJohn Baptist Riccioli, S.J. - 167I: and his long-lived selenograph
bulletGirolamo Saccheri, S.J. - 1733: and his solution to Euclid's blemish
bulletTheorems of Saccheri, S.J. - 1733: and his non Euclidean Geometry
bulletJohann Adam Schall von Bell, S.J. - 1669: Astronomy and the calendar
bulletChristopher Scheiner, S.J. - 1650: sunspots and his equatorial mount
bulletGaspar Schott, S.J. - 1666: and the experiment at Magdeburg
bulletAngelo Secchi, S.J. - 1878: the Father of Astrophysics
bulletJoseph Stepling, S.J. - 1650: symbolic logic and his research academy
bulletAndré Tacquet, S.J. - 1660: and his treatment of infinitesimals
bulletPierre Teilhard de Chardin, S. J. - 1955: and The Phenomenon of man
bulletFerdinand Verbiest, S.J. - 1688: an influential Jesuit scientist in China
bulletJuan Bautista Villalpando, S.J. - 1608: and his version of Solomon's Temple
bulletGregory Saint Vincent, S.J. - 1667: and his polar coordinates
bulletNicolas Zucchi, S.J. - 1670: the renowned telescope maker


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